• Українська

Kazimir Malevich, the founder of the Ukrainian avant-garde

In October 2017, for the first time in Kiev will host an international scientific conference dedicated to the Kiev period of the artist Kazimir Malevich. The reason for its holding steel found “sensational” texts, in particular, written by the artist himself. Art historians note, this is a landmark event, testifying that in Ukraine there is a new generation that decided to “return” to Ukraine of the artist and to restore historical justice.

In 1915, opened in Moscow rarely seen exhibition of decorative and applied art called “Recruitment”. The organizer of the exhibition, a landowner Natalya Davydova – avant – garde artist, staged in Ukraine in the village Recruitment, the production of embroideries. Local women embroidered by the famous avant – garde artists. It was quite a unique phenomenon. At the exhibition were presented products verbsky embroiderers: scarves, bags, pillows and more. This exhibition was the first appearance of Suprematism on the public horizon.

Suprematism – a style of painting, one of the directions of avant-garde art, expressed in combinations of colored planes and simple geometric shapes (geometric forms of straight line, square, circle and rectangle). This style invented by Kazimir Malevich. For the first time, he said at an exhibition colleagues of Ivan Puni. Puni accidentally saw Malevich paints in his Studio “Black square” and other Suprematist compositions Malevich had no urgency to submit it to society: the element of competition, the extremely important pioneering at the forefront. This exhibition was called “0,10”. The exhibition Malevich presented a new style called Suprematism. The name is also new: rather, it comes from the Latin supremus – the highest. That is the style that excels in all things high style.

Indeed, in this exhibition, Malevich became chief: he hung his “Square” in the so-called red corner – the place where usually in wooden houses hung with icons, and picture called an icon of his time. Of course he didn’t mean any offense traditional religion: he created a new icon which became “the Black square”. He described the new style as: “…Believing that the Cubo-futurism fulfilled their tasks, I turn to the Suprematism, the new painterly realism – to bezpredele creativity.”

Thus, Suprematism is not only a style of art, but also philosophy of creativity. For Malevich, the academic naturalism, the naturalism of the Impressionists, Stans, cubism, etc. – all these are not nothing but dialectic methods, which do not define self-worth works of art. The subject image is a copy of an existing, so supremacist expresses the feeling as such and ignores the familiarity of objectivity. Suprematism brings art to itself, that is, art that is not looking at the world, but feels it. Art is no longer interested in neither religion nor the state, nor the social side of life, it is the art of pure sensations. Suprematism – a new non-objective system of relations of equivalents, through which feelings are expressed.

Still on the “Kiev period” spoke very little due to lack of documents, explains the researcher of creativity of Malevich Tatyana Filyovskaya. However found in last year’s sensational texts about the work of Malevich in Kiev art Institute and his unpublished article that was included in the book “Kazimir Malevich. The Kiev period 1928-1930”, proved the importance of the Ukrainian stage of the artist’s life in his work . “We’re not just talking about the late period is 28-30 years. Malevich Kiev are more connected. First of all, the fact of the birth, then his childhood, his family ties, his training in the school Murashko and constant communication with Kyiv artistic environment throughout life,” says T. Filyovskaya.

Vanguard is not Russian, but mainly it is Ukrainian. The Kyiv conference was attended by well-known researchers of Malevich’s art. In particular, Jean-Claude Marcadé and Andrei Nakov, through which came the term “Ukrainian avant-garde”. They analyzed the work of Malevich and other Ukrainian artists “realized that vanguard is not Russian, but mainly it is Ukrainian,” says Fili. Also, the participants come from Poland, Belgium, Israel, Netherlands, Canada, Portugal, Belarus and Russia.

Colorless in St. Petersburg and colorful in Ukraine . World “maleficent” has always had claims to Ukrainian colleagues for the conference devoted to Malevich, were held everywhere, where “stepped his foot”, not only in Ukraine, said the Ukrainian avant-garde researcher Dmitry Gorbachev. Says, the Soviet government always kept Ukraine on a “starvation diet” and about Ukrainian art and then there was nothing to say. For the last name of Malevich heard in Ukraine, should be born a new generation.Why has it become colorful? Because he returned to Ukraine, and remembered people’s art, because up to 17 years lived in the villages.

With the opening of “Ukrainian” Malevich, Western art experts managed to unravel a lot of mysteries, the researcher Dmitry Gorbachev: “John Bolt said that “we have exhausted Malevich, but there are many mysteries that we gather here in the West and spinning at idle”. Why, for example, Malevich was colorless in St. Petersburg and suddenly became quite colorful? Why has it become colorful? Because he returned to Ukraine, and remembered people’s art, because up to 17 years lived in the villages. Then he saw a bright Bogomazova, Palm and stuck to them, the so-called spectralist. When I opened the Ukrainian aspect, everything fell into place.”

A great influence on the development of Suprematism little of the origin of Malevich. He was born in Kiev in 1879 and spent my childhood here. The artist studied at the Kiev art school Nikolai Pimonenko. Malevich stressed that his artistic vision of the world was formed the Ukrainian village. Ukrainian peasant hut with wall paintings, Ukrainian embroidery, Ukrainian pattern, it has played a significant role in his cubistic, and later Suprematist work. It is from there that Malevich took the simplicity, color and geometric clarity that fills his paintings. In particular, black, red and white colors characteristic of the work of rural craftsmen, are the leading and Suprematist compositions, the artist. Malevich wrote: “I followed all his life the villagers. The village was engaged in art (a word I didn’t know then). More precisely, it made things that I was liking. In these things and chalisa the whole secret of my sympathy for the peasants.”

The main merit of Suprematism – the deletion of the metaphor of painting. The artist depicts what is in the picture plane. Each work of art is self-sufficient and free from the aesthetic norms. Aesthetic approach to creating images – the repetition and variation of forms, learned society. Art – work outside the accepted Canon. Malevich declares a complete rejection of the aesthetic. He deconstru old methods image of reality

For Malevich, art evolves like science and technology. The history of painting should be considered as evolution. And Suprematism, and more specifically, white square on white background in his theory was to be the crown of the painting, that is the end of the use of pictorial means image of reality.

For Malevich Suprematism means “the primacy of color problem.” “Suprematism is the new realism of painting color, but not the sky, mountains, birds and all things.” Color is the predominant aspect of this style. Background for Suprematist compositions is always white.

Malevich worked in this style for several years, uniting a group of artists that he was inspired to work in the same style. This group formed a community called “Supremus”. In this group were artists such as Liubov Popova, Ivan Klyun, Olga Rozanova, Ivan Puni, Nadezhda Udaltsova, and the like. Despite the fact that the group “Supremus” did not last long, it gave the highest examples of fine art, which had and have a programming influence on the art world.

The last picture that was drawn in this style, was a painting by Malevich in 1918, was called “White on white”. It was a departure in a pointless plane. Malevich reduced to zero all previous art.

A continuation of Suprematism was neopragmatism, also created by Malevich. Unlike Suprematism is here sensuou load. Colors and shapes to Express some thought or describing an event. Here are the forms of Suprematism, however, Malevich returned to figurative painting. On suprematica the background stripes, squares, rectangles, planes of color, he placed the figures – for women, men. It was a new step, again a new word in art. So, the Suprematism of Kazimir Malevich, Ukrainian painter, was a revolutionary step in the art of bringing him to the origins of the simplest forms, foundations of the universe.

References: 1.Waqar I., T. Mikhienko Malevich about yourself. Contemporaries about Malevich. Letters. Documents. Memories. Criticism. – M., RA, 2004. – 1262с. 2.K. Malevich Suprematism. The world as pointlessness. – Moscow: Gileya, 2000. – 93s. 3.A. S. Shatskikh Kazimir Malevich and the Supremus society. — Moscow: Three squares, 2009. -464 S. 4.http://viperson.ru/articles/russkiy-neosuprematizm-intuitivnaya-mysl-priobretayuschaya-realnyy-smysl. 5.http://arzamas.academy courses/18. .6.http://www.radiosvoboda.org/a/27973846.html